Association of left ventricular strain–volume loop characteristics with adverse events in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
Thijs P Kerstens, Jerremy Weerts, Arie P J van Dijk, Gert Weijers, Christian Knackstedt, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, David Oxborough, Vanessa P M van Empel, Dick H J Thijssen
Aims Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are characterized by impaired diastolic function. Left ventricular (LV) strain–volume loops (SVL) represent the relation between strain and volume during the cardiac cycle and provide insight into systolic and diastolic function characteristics. In this study, we examined the association of SVL parameters and adverse events in HFpEF.
Methods and results In 235 patients diagnosed with HFpEF, LV-SVL were constructed based on echocardiography images. The endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and Heart Failure (HF)-related hospitalization, which was extracted from electronic medical records. Cox-regression analysis was used to assess the association of SVL parameters and the composite endpoint, while adjusting for age, sex, and NYHA class. HFpEF patients (72.3% female) were 75.8 ± 6.9 years old, had a BMI of 29.9 ± 5.4 kg/m2, and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60.3 ± 7.0%. Across 2.9 years (1.8–4.1) of follow-up, 73 Patients (31%) experienced an event. Early diastolic slope was significantly associated with adverse events [second quartile vs. first quartile: adjusted hazards ratio (HR) 0.42 (95%CI 0.20–0.88)] after adjusting for age, sex, and NYHA class. The association between LV peak strain and adverse events disappeared upon correction for potential confounders [adjusted HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.96–1.08)].
Conclusion Early diastolic slope, representing the relationship between changes in LV volume and strain during early diastole, but not other SVL-parameters, was associated with adverse events in patients with HFpEF during 2.9 years of follow-up.